Zero Knowledge Rollups
Zero-knowledge rollups, also known as zk-rollups, are a Layer 2 scaling solution that permits blockchains to validate transactions more quickly while preserving low gas costs. Because they mix on- and off-chain operations, Zk-rollups are able to perform better than conventional Layer 1 blockchains like Ethereum.
While Layer 2 zk-rollup solutions also include off-chain functions, the Ethereum mainnet specifically uses on-chain operations to execute transactions and validate blocks. Merkle Trees are one of the key elements that enable zk-rollups to effectively validate transactions more quickly than Layer 1 blockchains. Merkle Trees are a crucial mathematical construct that enables blockchains to guarantee that data in the on-chain records of a zk-rollup cannot be faked.