A base network’s core infrastructure, such as that of Bitcoin, BNB Chain, or Ethereum, is referred to as Layer 1. Without a second network, layer-1 blockchains can validate and complete transactions. It is challenging to increase the scalability of layer-1 networks, as we have seen with Bitcoin. Developers come up with layer-2 protocols that rely on the layer-1 network for consensus and security as a fix. One illustration of a layer-2 protocol is the Lightning Network used by Bitcoin. Before entering their transactions into the main chain, users are free to do so.